About the project

The project Researching Invasive Species of Kýpros (RIS-Ký) was launched in April 2017 and ran for two years looking at the impacts of invasive alien species in a variety of habitats (terrestrial, freshwater and marine). The project focused on the UK Overseas Territories (UKOTs) in Cyprus and was funded by the Darwin Initiative.

RIS-Ký will continue to run as part of the new Darwin Plus project Addressing drivers of ecological change in Lake Akrotiri SBA, Cyprus. This project started in 2019 and will run until March 2021.

The UKOTs in Cyprus are known as Sovereign Base Areas (SBAs), and have their own administration and civil government.


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Information on members of both the Darwin Plus funded projects is available here.


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Darwin Plus 088: Addressing drivers of ecological change in Lake Akrotiri SBA, Cyprus

The Akrotiri wetlands are an internationally important habitat complex and a Ramsar site. There is an urgent need to improve understanding of the ways in which the functions of this important site will change with increasing pressure from invasive non-native species (INNS), climate and land-use change, from hydrological, ecological and societal perspectives. Knowledge of the interplay among these factors will inform conservation decision-making and sustainable management. Land-use changes, as urban development plans progress around the Akrotiri peninsula (Pescott et al. 2018), are likely to interact with the increasing impacts of climate change (MWO 2014) and may facilitate the incursion of INNS into natural habitats. This is predicted to affect locally-rare native plants and animals, but also undesirable resident mosquitoes, e.g. malaria and West Nile Virus vectors and nuisance species. Ecological and hydrological monitoring, underpinned by capacity building and supported by the development of an INNS database (established through project DPLUS056), will provide opportunities to use an evidence-based approach to manage the Akrotiri wetlands in the context of environmental change. The monitoring proposed here will address key aspects of the UKOT Biodiversity Strategy, responsibilities within the SBA’s Ordinances (SBA Administration, 2012), including favourable conservation status, and priorities under the Ramsar

The project focuses on monitoring and understanding drivers of change in the Akrotiri wetlands, Cyprus. We will use remote sensing, on-the-ground measurements of water quality and vegetation, and assess. community interactions between native and non-native species including mosquitoes. We will establish baselines and procedures for evaluating the health of this highly-valued wetland. All tasks will be underpinned by capacity-building and public engagement, ultimately providing long-term species and environmental data as an evidence-base for the SBAs and wider Cyprus.

Our programme of work will be carried out in the following four work packages (WPs): 

WP1: Developing online wildlife recording

An online database of INNS (CyDAS) was created through DPLUS056. WP1 will build on this to enable citizen scientists and professionals to submit records. We will contract the University of Cyprus to manage marine INNS information, whilst CEH will oversee terrestrial/ freshwater INNS. Capacity-building (WP4) will ensure
that SBA/Cypriot staff will continue to manage CyDAS, alongside volunteers, after project completion.

WP2: Hydrological and vegetation sampling

We will collect baseline data for water quality, soil moisture and vegetation in the summer of the first year (dry season) and the spring of the second year (wet season) to develop indicators for saline Mediterranean wetlands. Vegetation data will be linked to remote sensing WP3 through ground-truthing. We will carry out sampling along hydrological and land-use gradients, and share methods with local staff to ensure monitoring continues post-project.

WP3: Remote sensing of vegetation

We will use high resolution (50cm-4m) multi-spectral (8 bands in the 400nm–1040nm range) WorldView imagery to establish a baseline vegetation map, suitable for future monitoring of hydro-ecological change. We will aim to separate the main distinct vegetation types for the Akrotiri peninsula (open salt pan, salt marsh, dunes, rush salt meadow, phrygana, maquis) and identify invasive tree species (acacia and casuarina), aided by a 3D surface model. Seasonal behaviour between vegetation types will be investigated.

WP4: Capacity-building, biosecurity and engagement

Capacity-building through workshops, field training and guides will underpin the delivery of WPs1-3. The three strands are:

1. Monitoring priority INNS and their interactions to inform understanding of ecosystem functioning.
We will develop technical training (building on DPLUS056) and resources to support online recording of wildlife in Cyprus, including interactions between INNS (WP1) and native species e.g. pollinators. We will produce a conceptual diagram demonstrating interlinkage between the wetland, surrounding habitats and
wildlife (using field survey data from WP2 and WP3), highlighting the values of ecosystem functions for engaging people.

2. Development of mobile recording app and methods for participatory engagement
The project will develop education packs for the AEEC to engage people in species recording, including introduction to an app, and highlighting the importance of wetland conservation and management e.g. sustainable water use and interactions of ecological communities within wetlands.

3. Biosecurity guidance and pathway action plans for species identified from DPLUS056 Horizon Scanning exercise
We will work with civilian and military personnel to develop an accessible document advising on pathway action plans and biosecurity for SBAs in Cyprus. The document will be relevant for other UKOTs and will include a Code of Practice for Managing Mosquitoes in Wetlands. Local communities, schools, civilian and
military personnel will be given training in INNS identification and biosecurity to minimise risk of establishment.

Who's involved?

The partners are the UK Centre for Ecology and Hydrology (UKCEH), the Joint Services Health Unit (JSHU) at Akrotiri and the Akrotiri Environmental Education Centre. Many other stakeholders will be involved throughout the project through the workshops and capacity building we will undertake. 


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Darwin Plus 056: Assessment of current and future Invasive Alien Species in Cyprus

The spread of Invasive Alien Species (IAS) represents a threat to native species and human health around the world. The SBA of Akrotiri includes the largest aquatic system in Cyprus, protected as a habitat of international importance within the Mediterranean (Ramsar Convention) and an Important Bird Area. Areas dominated by alien species (such as the Akrotiri forest) may favour pathogen vectors (mosquitoes, rats), and act as a source of invasive species affecting surrounding habitats. For example, Port Jackson wattle (Acacia saligna)planted commonly for wood production and other purposes, is prevalent across the inhabited areas of the Island. This species has detrimental impacts on native biodiversity through out-competing native plants. Surveys of this species have already been undertaken and more work is planned during the course of this project. In freshwater habitats, Gambusia fish introduced to control mosquitoes have also spread and may be having impacts on native species. In addition, the biodiversity of the Mediterranean Sea is changing dramatically through biological invasions, with increased introduction rates of alien species, many of which have been introduced through the Suez Canal. The recent enlargement of this channel is likely to facilitate the spread of Red Sea species, affecting both biodiversity and ecosystem services.

The UKOT biodiversity strategy prioritises: (i) obtaining data on the location and status of biodiversity interests and the human activities affecting biodiversity to inform the preparation of policies and management plans (including baseline survey and subsequent monitoring); and, (ii) preventing the establishment of invasive alien species, and eradicating or controlling species that have already become established. These are also priorities for the SBA government in Cyprus and, through surveillance and improved biosecurity, our project will address both.

Our programme of work will be carried out in three work packages (WPs) that will contribute to achieving sustainable surveillance of current and potential future IAS on the SBAs in Cyprus, and the surrounding areas.

WP1 Horizon scanning: We undertook a Horizon Scanning workshop in April 2017 at the Akrotiri Environmental Education and Information Centre, with scientists with expertise on IAS from Cyprus and across Europe. The workshop generated a list of species predicted to be of threat to the SBA and Cyprus. These species were prioritised based on their potential future impacts on biodiversity and human health. This list will be published in an academic journal shortly.

WP2 Surveillance and modelling of species distributions: This work will continue throughout the project and will be based upon systematic surveys already carried out in the SBAs, as well as new work in the freshwater and marine environments.

WP3 Biosecurity and capacity building: As with any project, success is linked to the understanding of the communities who live in affected areas. We are also focusing engaging with local communities and discussing our work, highlighting the challenges faced by all of us from urban and agricultural development, increased trade networks and changing climate in relation to IAS.

Who's involved?

The partners are the UK Centre for Ecology and Hydrology (UKCEH), the Joint Services Health Unit (JSHU) at Akrotiri, and the University of Cyprus (UCY). Many other stakeholders were involved throughout the project. For example, the Horizon Scanning exercise from 2017 involved people from across Cyprus, the Mediterranean, and further afield. 


If you would like to know more about any of this work, please contact the Project Manager Jodey Peyton.

Lake Akrotiri from the viewing platform of the AEEC.
Lake Akrotiri from the viewing platform of the AEEC.